Project of the RFBR (Russian Foundation for Basic Research) "Cognitive analysis of word semantics: computer-corpus approach" 2011-2013. The summary of the papers prepared at the first stage (2011)
First stage of the project "Cognitive analysis of word semantics: computer-corpus approach" (2011) was focused on state of the art in cognitive semantics as well as in the analysis of concrete achievements of Russian cognitive linguistics in the field of cognitive analysis of word semantics. As the result the participants of the project have carried out the analysis which contains the comparison of methods of research in various schools of the cognitive and discourse analysis. Analytical materials contain the following chapters:
The role of qualia structure in formalization of meanings of nouns (Vera Zabotkina, Elena Boyarskaya). While developing the mechanism of the analysis of process of multiple-valued word meanings formation, provisions of the theory of James Pusteyovsky about qualia structure were used. The analysis of recognition of multiple-valued word meanings in speech with use of materials of interdisciplinary researches conducted on a joint of cognitive psychology and cognitive semantics became new lay-out within the project. The materials of British National Corpus enabled to test new instruments of the conceptual priming which encourages and activates meaning of the multiple-valued word in consciousness which corresponds to the analyzed context.
The modern methods of research of word semantics in Russian and English from positions of the cognitive analysis used in computer-corpus linguistics (Olga Zayachkovskaya). Much attention has been paid to the analysis of lay-outs in the field of the cognitive semantics and corpus researches presented by recognized foreign linguists, in particular Stefan Th. Gries and Anatol Stefanowitch. The special attention has been paid to identification of "metaphorical samples" in research of the conceptual metaphor and metonymy, using computer-corpus technologies and the innovative software of work in the sphere of research of word semantics.
Methodology of case linguistics in semantics, grammar, stylistics, phraseology (Ekaterina Golubkova). During implementation of the project the following methods and approaches have been used:
- the method of creation of the behavioural profile of the multiple-valued word on the basis of the corpus database;
- methods of statistical calculation with use of corpus data;
- the method of reconstruction of conceptual structure of the word and determination of its prototypical value with support of the corpus (BNC, COCA).
Realization of scientific principles in the lexicographic project consisting in the consecutive description of the number of verbal prefixes (one-type language units) (Maxim Krongauz). The paper is based on the strict definition of the concept of value of the verbal prefix which is based on the cognitive principles. Several researchers and research groups in the world are engaged in a similar perspective (J. Lakoff, L. Janda, etc.), however this approach offers the competing descriptions based both on traditional interpretation and on the concept of "scenario" and uses corpus methods of research.
Development of the method of propositional analysis for the research of text and discourse realization of social cognition (Elena Pozdnyakova). Methods of the propositional analysis have received unique directions of research of the social cognition both at the level of word derivation and at the level of text.
Identification of axiological motivation in metaphorical, the metonimic and the metaphtonimic models of time in the worldview of native speakers of different language groups (the Germanic languages, e.g. English and the Slavic languages, e.g. Church Slavonic and Russian) from positions of cognitive and linguistic approach of the cognitive bases. For the first time changes of value motivation of lexemes of temporal semantics are traced in a diachrony on material of lexicographic and corpus data of English and Russian (British National Corpus; Russian National Corpus); there are shown up cognitive shifts in metaphorical, the metonimic and the metaphtonimic models that have become the reason of reorganization of values of names of temporal semantics.
The Round table on the subject of "Methods of the Cognitive Analysis of Semantics of the Word" which was carried out in Russian State University for the Humanities on the 24th of October became the scientific event implemented within the project. 30 scientists from different cities of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, including 17 doctors of science and professors, have taken part in this event. Russian scientists’ papers on word semantics are in the collection of materials of the conference and published in the form of the e-book (237 pages), (Information Registry,.№ 0321103282). They describe the new approaches in semantics created and developing within the cognitive direction in linguistics. Authors of the papers pay the main attention to new methods of research: theory of conceptual integration, cognitive mapping, conceptual metaphor, conceptual analysis, propositional analysis. A number of articles of the collection is devoted to development of methodology of the cognitive analysis of word semantics within cognitive linguistics and to description of the new methods created in recent years. The special attention is paid to research of word semantics using the methods of corpus linguistics.